Posted on December 2, 2019
Darwin Rises Again
(A monograph on the present day controversy in India, surrounding Darwin’s Theory)
[Author’s Note – Although this article was written, posted & circulated in response to a statement made by a Minister in the Govt. Of India, the points discussed in this article are of worldwide significance, as they relate to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.] Universal Darwinism
Darwin has turn out to be a subject of hot controversy in India inside the previous few weeks, and of route, a topic for the media.
A few weeks back, in a seminar, Hon. Shri (Mr) Satya Pal Singh, the Minister of State for Human Resource Development, Govt. Of India, made a statement that Darwin’s principle of Evolution is wrong, and that a Committee can be fashioned to look into this Theory. After this, the Indian scientists protested in opposition to this statement. Consequent to all this, Hon. Shri (Mr) Prakash Jawadekar, Cabinet Minister for Human Resource Development (HRD), Govt. Of India, made an assertion that no such committee may be fashioned. But the talk is not over, and the Scientists are watching the week starting twelfth Feb. 2018 as ‘Darwin Week’ to emphasize that Darwin’s theory is accurate. This has been prepared via ‘The India March for Science Organising Committee’ and ‘The Breakthrough Science Society’. The organisers say that Darwin’s Theory has been proved to be accurate through some of improvement in the field of technology.
It appears that the hue & cry on Darwin is not going to die down soon.
2. A bit approximately Darwin & his Theory:
• Darwin became an Australian. He turned into born in 1809. In 1859, Darwin wrote his famous ebook, ‘Origin of Species’. In it he overturned the old theory of ‘Creation’ that was in style within the Western I.E Christian global. (In this monograph, we are able to shortly cross into that theory of Creation).
• As according to Darwin’s idea of Evolution, lifestyles on earth Earth has evolved even though Random Genetic Mutations, along side the ‘Process of Natural Selection’, wherein ‘Survival of the Fittest’ is the rule of thumb.
• This Theory has led scientists to agree with & ‘prove’ that guy has descended from Apes, and additionally that ‘Homo Erectus’, ‘Neanderthal Man’ and so on. Have disappeared as they had been now not the ‘fittest’.
3. No Sides:
While it’s far neither the intension of the writer of this monograph to take one or the alternative aspect on this controversy, nor to position down absolutely everyone; he intends to go into a few aspects of Darwin’s Theory, and could try to arrive at a conclusion about the controversy (even though no longer necessarily approximately the Theory itself).
PART – (I):
4. New reveals / theories which have replaced old ones: Some Examples:
As we’ve got visible earlier, Darwin’s concept has overturned the antique principle.
In reality, it isn’t always just Darwin, but numerous different individuals in some of unique fields, who’ve placed up new theories which invalidated vintage ones.
• Let us start with Darwin himself. For centuries, the (old) Theory of Creation that changed into believed by way of the Christian World became that ‘God created man in his picture (& from earth)’. But, Darwin, as noted earlier, talks now not of ‘Creation’, but of ‘Evolution’. He overthrew the antique theory.
• It became also believed with the aid of the Christian West (as in line with a principle formulated by way of a Christian priest of the medieval period) that the Earth & this World become created circa 4000 BCE (the priest had given no longer simplest the exact yr, but the month, date & time of creation too!). Research within the past couple of centuries has proven that the Earth is numerous billion years antique.
So, out went the antique idea.
• In early-medieval period, people in Europe believed that the ‘Earth is flat’; and actually while seafaring they had a fear that they may fall off the Earth’s part in the event that they journey a ways from the Coast. But, of direction, we now realize that the Earth is Round (pear-shaped).
That induced the demise of the old principle.
• For centuries, Europeans believed that ‘The sun revolved spherical the Earth, and that the Earth is on the middle of the Universe’. Galileo confirmed that it’s far the Earth which moved across the Sun. (Of course, he become hounded for his new principle & jailed. His concept took some time to take root, however take root it did, and out went the old concept).
• Now we also recognise that the Earth is not on the Centre of the Universe, that Sun is simplest a small star located in one of the spiral palms of the galaxy ‘Milky Way’, and that there are billions of such galaxies within the Universe.
Needless to factor out that the vintage idea is no more talked about.
• Take Newton’s theory. It was a innovative idea in its time, and was accompanied for a few centuries; but in early 20th century, whilst the ‘Theory of Relativity’ changed into proposed with the aid of Einstein, it was observed that Newton’s principle had barriers. Now Einstein’s principle has replaced Newton’s.
• Throughout the nineteenth century, Europeans believed that ‘India has no records
& civilization before the invasion on Alexander’.
But, in the early decades of the 20 th century, archeologists located sites of the Harappan Civilization, (also referred to as ‘Indus Valley Civilization’), and the Westerners needed to grudgingly be given its duration as 3500 BCE, and as a consequence the old concept changed into debunked.
• After India were given its independence, Harappa & Mohen-Jo-Daro, (the then-recognized important websites of the Indus civilization) had been lost to Pakistan; and so, Indian archeologists made a concerted attempt to discover new web sites of this civilization. This has led to locating the direction of the ‘Lost’ river Saraswati, (which has been referred within the Rig Veda), and some of web sites of the Harappan civilization including Kalibungan, Lothal, Dhola Vira, Rakhigadhi and so forth in Northern India & Western India; (and also later-Harappan sites such as Jorve, Nevase, Daimabad & others inside the western nation of Maharashtra).
More than one thousand such small & huge sites had been observed by using archeologists.
Since it was noticed that many such web sites of the Harappan civilization had been located on the banks of River Saraswati, and therefore, many Indian archeologists changed the name ‘Indus civilization’ with ‘Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization’. (Sindhu – River Indus).
Another old concept has been annulled.
• Now, latest research at Rakhigadhi (within the stste of Haryana in Northern India) has proven that the ‘Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization’ (Indus civilization) turned into 6000 BCE old, and the length of the pre-Harappan civilization there has been observed to be 7000 BCE.
Even the quite-current idea about the ‘length of the Indus Civilization’ has fallen.
Five. Some new theories which are threatening to dethrone older ones:
• Aryan Invasion Theory: (AIT):
#This came into fashion after the Indus Civilization changed into located. Then Western pupils put up a concept that semi-nomadic ‘Aryan’ invaders came into India, and it changed into they that destroyed the Indus Civilization.
[Author’s Note: It is to be noted that ‘Aryan’ is not the name of any Race, but the ‘then-experts’ made it so, wrongly. Aryan actually means ‘Noble One’].
Some a long time later, after more artifacts had been determined on the Indus sites, and new finds have been unearthed, the ‘Aryan Invasion Theory’ needed to be deserted, and it become changed by the ‘Aryan Immigration Theory’ which says that ‘Aryans’ came into India in small agencies and settled right here.
(And, so the Invasion concept fell, and become modified).
But, whether or not it’s far Invasion Theory or Immigration Theory, it mainly postulated that the ‘Aryans’ came into India from the West, from the area of Iran (& initially from Central Asia). Most western experts and several Indian specialists nevertheless agree with in that Theory.
In the beyond couple of many years, a new theory has been promulgated by way of a few Indian Researchers and has also been supported through some PIO Researchers from USA. Its primary premise is that the ‘Aryans’ originated in India, and unfold westwards, and they have ‘proved’ it by means of using RigVedic texts. (Rig Veda – The oldest of the very-ancient four Vedas).
Supporters of both these theories are having sour fights with every different. We ought to wait to see who ultimately wins.
• ‘Aryan’-‘Dravid’ Divide:
We have seen that, after locating Indus/ Harappan Civilization, the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT, referred above) came into lifestyles. It postulated that the Harappans had been Dravidians (Dravidian: The call of a so-referred to as ‘Race’), who were pushed away by using the invading Aryans.
Then, the South-Indians, specifically the Tamilians, (Tamil – A language of a area in South-India) took up this theory in zest, and this brought about a North-South Divide.
Recent Genetic studies have conclusively validated that there are not any separate ‘Aryan’ or ‘Dravidian’ races in India. The Indian population is in truth a unmarried, combined-genetic group. So in reality, the Aryan-Dravidian principle is defunct and need to be thrown out of the window. (However, old biases nevertheless exist, and it will take some time earlier than they’re discarded).
• The length of the Vedas:
[Vedas – The very-ancient holy books of the Indian civilization].
In the 19th century, the incredible Sanskrit student Max Muller postulated the duration of the RigVeda as ‘middle of 2nd Century BCE’.
However, new evidence is taking the length of Vedas notably backwards. For instance, ‘Yajna-Vedis’ (i.E., Alters for accomplishing rituals associated with Fire-worship) are observed in the Harappan Civilization sites, which has led numerous Indian pupils to postulate that the Indus civilization was indeed RigVedic Civilization.
Now a debate is raging about the above, so as to, to a incredible volume, determine the Period of RigVeda. But, in any case., maximum Indian pupils now agree with that the Period indicated by using Max Muller is inaccurate.
• ‘Proto-Indo-European’ language:
In the past due 18th century, William Jones observed the similarity between the very-historic Indian language ‘Vedic-Sanskrit’ (proto-Sanksrit), Avestan (very-historic Iranian), Greek & Latin. This led to the concept of a not unusual, historical ‘Indo-European’ language, which is supposed to be the mom of the abovementioned languages. That principle in turn led later to ‘Proto-Indo-European’ Language, which has been postulated as the mom of ‘Indo-European’.
[Author’s Note: It ought to be remembered that even traces of such a language have not actually been found anywhere, but that such an ancient language has been merely postulated].
We have visible that, now, a few Indian researchers have positioned up a ‘Indian Origin’ Theory (additionally referred to as ‘Out of India ‘concept), in vicinity of AIT that has postulated that Aryans entered India from outdoor. (This has been mentioned in advance).
The mention of Vedic Gods in Mittani texts (placed inside the Middle-East location of Asia) of mid-2nd millennium BCE, is being interpreted by each facets to help their own idea.
Those scholars, who’re siding with the ‘Out of India’ idea say that, there was no ‘Proto Indo-European’ language, however in reality it became a ‘proto proto-Sanskrit’ that spread into Persian, Europe etc.
Believers of both these theories at the moment are scuffling with it out.
PART – (II):
Somebody may additionally surprise as to what’s the relevance of all of the above discussion with the Darwinian Theory. We are actually going into it.
6. Has Darwin’s idea been ‘completely’ proved? Is it a ‘best’ idea? Are there any Lacunae in it? –
Let us refer an Article titled ‘Darwin’s Demise’, via Will Hart.
• Darwin himself changed into aware about the weakness of his theory. He known as the Origin of Flowering Plants as ‘An Abominable Mystery’. This is one of the vulnerable links in Darwin’s Theory, and it has no longer nonetheless been solved. Darwin himself wrote – ‘It is the most extreme objection that can be advised in opposition to the Theory.
(Author’s Observation: It appears that Darwin become more open-minded than most scientists & experts who guide his concept).
• Michael Behe, a Biology professor, in his ebook ‘In Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical mission to Evolution’, specializes in five phenomena: *Blood Clotting; * Cilia, ($$); *The human Immune System; *The transport of substances within cells; *Synthesis of Nucleotides.
After analysis, he arrives at a conclusion: ‘These are systems which might be so highly complicated that no ‘gradual, step-by using-step’ Darwinian route could have caused their introduction.
[($$) Cilium – Plural Cilia. Cilia: (Dictionary Meaning): Many tiny hair-like processes which line cells in passages in the body and by moving backwards and forwards drive particles or fluid along the passage].
• Has any proof been found from the fossil-records concerning transitional species?
The late Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould says, ‘All paleontologists is aware of that the fossil record incorporates precious little within the way of intermediate paperwork; transitions among essential companies.. ‘.
It must be cited that, fossils of early and extinct primates, hominids, Neanderthals, and Homo Sapiens, were found; but no fossils of the transition linking ape and man have been located.
The equal situation exists approximately look of ‘Flowering-vegetation’. Fossils representing non-flowering-plant life from three hundred million years in the past are located, in addition to the ones of flowering-flowers from 100 million years in the past. But, no plants were found displaying the slow system of mutations that constitute the intermediate species (of flora) that link the 2.
• Once the arena-renowned anthropologists Louis B. Leaky was asked about the ‘missing link’. He answered, ‘There isn’t any (just) one hyperlink missing – there are hundreds of links lacking’.
• Just one hundred years after Darwin, the shape of DNA turned into located.
Geneticists recognise that the full-size majority of mutations are either bad or impartial. In different words, mutations are normally mistakes. It seems that mutation isn’t a totally reliable primary mechanism, because natural -selection is glaringly no longer a dynamic pressure that could pressure the kind of modifications that scientists characteristic to the evolution concept.
Michel Behe (referred in advance) has pointed out in his book that life within a cellular is simply too complicated to be the outcome of random mutations.
• David Lewis, in his article points out that, within the case of the human mind, its superior capacities, inclusive of the capability to carry out calculus, ability to play the violin, cannot be explained by means of Darwin’s Theory.
• Even Consciousness itself, can not be defined by Darwin’s ‘Survival of the fittest’ doctrine alone.
Darwinism relies upon upon the belief that each one existence is rely-primarily based, & it can’t account for Consciousness.
• Lewis refers to an article with the aid of David Chalmers, titled ‘The puzzle of Experience’, that changed into posted in the international-famous, surprisingly-reputed mag, ‘Scientific American’. Chalmers says, ‘For many years, Consciousness was refrained from through researchers… Science, which depends on objectivity, could not accommodate some thing as subjective as Consciousness.’
• Several scientists rejects Darwin’s regularly-stated premise, which holds that, all existence evolved from primitive rely, by chance, with out motive or layout.
• Lewis additionally factors out that, the proliferation of closely-associated biological species on continents separated through widespread oceans additionally puzzles Darwinists.
• Lewis brings up an critical & interesting point, ‘Why restrict the controversy to Western fashions?’. He indicates that Eastern models too need to be studied.
[For example, in another field, Fritjof Capra, in his book ‘Tao of Physics’ harmonizes Vedic, Buddhist, and Taoist philosophy with the subtleties of the Quantum Theory.]
7. Some objections to the ‘Established Science’:
Let us refer a Marathi article titled ‘Prasthapit Vidnyanavareel Aakshep’ (Objections to Established Science), that has seemed in Marathi Daily ‘Loksatta’ (Indian Express Group), Mumbai Edition, dated 17th Feb., 2018, and written by Mr. Ravindra Rukmini Pandharinath, which describes the mind-set of some scientists. [Marathi – The language of the State of Maharashtra, in Western India].
• ‘Scienticism’ – It says that not only religious Religionists are Dogmatic, however so are those supporters of technological know-how who consider Science as a ‘Religion’. Their mind-set is that, for example, if the subject is ‘Dams’, no one however a Civil Engineer ought to speak; if the difficulty is fitness-associated, no person but a clinical health practitioner have to communicate on it.
*Is such an mind-set right? David Lewis (referred formerly) states, ‘common experience appears to take a backseat to scientific Dogma’.
• Several feminist thinkers have criticized that the Language & Connotation of Science are biased by Male-dominated thinking. Science claims to be neutral & fact-based, however it closes its eyes to the gender-differentiated questioning this is hidden deep inside it.
• Feminist critics, who also include Scientists, claim that, the mounted-technology believes the male-frame to be the Benchmark, while the female-frame is taken into consideration as if it’s miles an aberration.
• Scientists are not an undivided fraternity. We have already mentioned about the male-dominance & the feminists. Apart from this, there’s a tussle among the ‘Capitalist-oriented Science’ and the ‘Marxist-orientated technology’. Marxist-scientists have an objection that the prevailing present day-science has been developed in the framework of Capitalist Values & Beliefs, and therefore it has everyday that form of fee-gadget. This is clearly no longer appropriate to them.
*This approach that Scientists themselves aren’t united in their approach & conclusions, and that, their conclusions might be coloured through their attitudes & beliefs.
Eight. Freedom of Expression:
• Discussing differing factors of views: India’s Ancient Tradition:
India has a protracted lifestyle of enduring & discussing differing factors of perspectives. Over the centuries, Indian Tradition has been that, an writer / truth seeker could first talk with appreciate others’ differing perspectives & theories, (calling that as his ‘Poorva-Paksha’, i.E. The previous-perspectives); after which he might, in his ‘Uttar-Paksha’ (i.E. The cutting-edge view, meaning his personal view), present his personal concept, and therewith proving wrong / incomplete, the theories propagated previously via others.
• The Constitution of India offers each citizen the ‘Right to Free Speech’. As this is a fundamental right, everybody has the freedom to express his thoughts & evaluations; and others must no longer item to (& choke) such expression per se.
• Towards this, let us look at the Quotes of some thinkers – (Approximate translation). Ref. ‘Loksatta’ newspaper, Mumbai Edition, Dated nineteenth Feb., 2018:
o Justice Chapalgaonkar: We do speak approximately Freedom of Expression. However, the openmindedness essential for respecting others’ expression, has nevertheless no longer taken root in our society.
O Laxmikant Deshmukh: Former bureaucrat, and the Chairperson of the Marathi Literary Convention held inside the city of Vadodara (Baroda) in Feb. 2018: Every citizen of this u . S . A . Has the right to unfastened expression. While the use of this Fundamental Right, it’s miles necessary to invite inquiries to the Establishment.
O Shyam Manohar, a senior litterateur who turned into felicitated in the abovereferred Marathi Literary Convention:… Curiosity for various things is one of the primary using pressure(s) of humans… Complex questions & the efforts to get their answers is the signal of a civilized society. The civilized Society need to keep alive some region (within one’s own existence) for knowledge… Knowledge isn’t best to be possessed, it has to be created too. One need to take the time to pass at the information to the society; one ought now not insist on winning (in the effort, in the speak).
9. Conventions / Councils held in the past: a few examples:
In the past history of India & the world, we do find councils / Congress / Assemblies / Conventions (held under exceptional names) for discussing important troubles.
[Mind you, we are not discussing as to what conclusions these congregations arrived at (& whether those conclusions were right, from today’s perspective), but we are highlighting the fact that such Summits were indeed held, where complex issues were deliberated upon seriously and decisions taken (that were seen to be right from the then-prevailing knowledge, beliefs & point of view)].
Here are some Examples –
• In the few centuries after the dying of Buddha, 3 Summits of Buddhist monks had been held to talk about Buddhism, the first one a quick time after Buddha’s loss of life, the second at Emperor Ashoka’s time, & the 1/3 one at the time of Emperor Kanishka.
• To discuss about Christianity & its tenets, A Convension of Churh-Fathers become held in late-1st Century AD, and in mid-3rd Century AD.
• In Maharashtra, (a State in India), inside the 13th Century AD (i.E. CE), young Mr. Vitthalpant became a Sanyasi (i.E., he renounced the worldly attachments) with out taking his wife’s permission. On gaining knowledge of of this, his Guru ordered him again into Grihasthashram (i.E., main the existence of, & following the responsibilities of, a Householder). On returning to own family-life, he gave birth to 4 Children, one in all whom later got here to be known as ‘Sant (saint) Jnaneshwar’.
O When these children had been grown up sufficiently, Vitthalpant desired their ‘Upanayan’ (i.E., Scacred-thread ceremony) to be executed. For this, he approached the Congregation of Learned & informed individuals in Alandi (near Pune, in Mharashtra), who deliberated on the problem of their Gathering & informed what penance Vitthalpant must undertake as in line with the historical spiritual-laws, which decision he & his wife did abide by.
O The equal congregation told Vitthalpant’s sons to technique the ‘Elders’ at Paithan, (a city in Maharashtra), who have been very well versed in the historic traditions & Laws of the Religion. Accordingly, while those brothers approached the Congregation at Paithan, the collection did planned in this trouble in all seriousness.
• Even these days, there’s a Gram-Panchayat (i.E. Council of Village-Elders) in villages, which deliberates on vital issues severely and is derived to a decision.
• What may be re-emphasised is that, for essential & complicated problems, putting in place & organizing meetings of such Gatherings for extreme deliberations has been a exercise that has persisted from the beyond several millennia.
Nine. Concluding Remarks:
• Mr. Ravindra’s above referred article (that seemed in ‘Loksatta’ newspaper), articulated as follows:
It isn’t always right for the Central minister of State for HRD, Govt. Of India, to make a assertion saying – ‘Since our (Indian) spiritual scriptures do no longer point out whatever about Evolution, the Evolution-theory of Darwin ought to not be trained in colleges’.
This method that Ravindra deems the Minister’s announcement to be incorrect.
(Present Author’s statement – This assertion of the Hon. Minister is as pronounced within the media. The minister himself has no longer rendered any similarly comment or explanation in this challenge).
But allow us to be clean that, on the equal time, it isn’t always right for the scientists to be ‘Dogmatic’ and paintings towards a speak on Darwin’s idea.
• Unfortunately, these days, Indians are forgetting the antique gadget of ‘Tolerence’, and are currently turning into more & more intolerant. Intolerance by means of everybody is unacceptable; especially from the Scientist fraternity.
Let us wish that each sides will see ‘the way of the clever’ & that a extreme debate on Darwin’s concept does take vicinity.
[Author’s Suggestion – But, perhaps, it ought to be a discussion without bringing in any argument covering God and / or Extra-terrestrial-Intelligence into it.].
• A deliberation does no longer necessarily imply that straight away a ‘Commonly-agreed-to-end’ might be arrived at, i.E. Suitable to all. Even if in this Conference, numerous components and differing view-points are discussed dispassionately & in a non-emotional surroundings, that itself ought to be taken into consideration as properly development.
• Finally: Can we are hoping that a few responsible man or woman maintaining a Position of Authority might take a logical & dispassionate view on this count number, and would take the lead in organizing this kind of convention?
– Subhash S. Naik
Several Old theories ruling the roost for centuries have been replaced by way of more moderen theories. In reality, Darwin’s Theory replaced the Old ‘Creation’ Theory. But, Darwin’s Theory too has some lacunae. What is needed is, appreciate for others’ factor of view, and a dispassionate & logic-based totally discussion on this difficulty, throughout several forums all around the global. May be, you could make this kind of beginning.